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About CanadaSome information and tips about Canada

About Canada
Population of Canada:
Canada’s population is around 38 million. Approximately 80% of people live in cities and towns. Canada has so much space that the country's population density ratio is one of the lowest in the world. That translates to less than 4 persons per square mile!

Canada's largest cities include:
Toronto: 6.5 million
Montreal: 4.3 million
Vancouver: 2.7 million
Calgary: 1.5 million
Edmonton: 1.4 million
Ottawa-Gatineau: 1.4 million

Canada is a multicultural and diverse country. Canadians represent 250 ethnic origins or ancestries. There are 20 million Canadians of European ancestry, 2 million with Indigenous ancestry and large numbers of Canadians who report being of Chinese, East Indian, Southeast Asian and other ancestries. Canada’s Indigenous population consists of First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples[3].

Canadians practice many different religions, while some claim no religious affiliation. Our population includes people who adhere to Catholic, Protestant, Christian Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh and other faiths.

Languages of Canada:
Canada has 2 official languages: English and French. All federal government institutions and many businesses offer bilingual services.

Chinese dialects are the 3rd most common native language in Canada, followed by Panjabi (Punjabi), Spanish, Arabic and Tagalog. The most common Indigenous languages are Cree, Inuktitut and Innu.

Canadian political system:
Canada has a democratic system of government. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as our Head of State. In Canada, the Governor General carries out Her Majesty’s duties and is our de facto Head of State.

Canada’s capital city is Ottawa, Ontario. Our Parliament consists of the House of Commons with 338 elected members and the Senate, where 105 members are appointed. On average, Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected every 4 years. The Prime Minister, who is usually the leader of the party with the largest number of seats in the House of Commons, is Canada’s Head of Government. The Prime Minister appoints 20 to 30 ministers who make up the Cabinet. The Cabinet develops government policy and is responsible to the House of Commons.

Each of Canada’s 10 provinces and 3 territories has a legislature under the leadership of a premier. Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for education, health care, drivers’ licenses, labor standards, social services and more.

Municipal and local governments also play an important role and are normally responsible for urban or regional planning, streets and roads, sanitation (such as garbage collection), snow removal, firefighting services, ambulance, emergency services, recreational facilities, public transportation as well as some local health and social services.
Weather, Climate and Geography
Weather and Climate:
The biggest part of Canada has a continental climate, although average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary according to the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate. In these areas the daily average temperatures can be near -15 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) but can even drop below -40 degrees Celsius (-40 degrees Fahrenheit) with severe wind chills. In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year. Coastal British Columbia enjoys a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter.

On the east and west coasts in summer average high temperatures are generally in the low 20 degrees Celsius (70 degrees Fahrenheit), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit), with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

Geography:
With a landmass of 3.5 million square miles, Canada is the second-largest country in the world. Canada is located in the top half of North America, and the country is bordered by three oceans: Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic. In fact, Canada has the longest coastline of any country. To our south, Canada share nearly 6,000 miles of land border with the United States. That’s the longest border in the world! Most Canadians live within a few hundred miles of the U.S. border.

Our country has some impressive geographic features, including vast mountain ranges and more than 2 million lakes. Would you believe Canada have just under 385,000 square miles of fresh water? Pack your bathing suit and prepare to explore our beautiful rivers, lakes, streams and oceans.
Required Clothing
Since Canada is usually cold during the winter times, thick clothes are suggested for travelers for winter travelers. During summer times, the weather gets warm (80F+ during the day time) especially in the southern cities such as Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. Although you will find times to wear t-shirts in the summer season, we always suggest travelers to bring the clothes down below:

Winter Jackets & Wool Coats.
Merino Wool Sweaters & Cardigans (vs) light fleece jackets.
Snow pants or winter pants.
Boots.
Thick socks.

Strongly recommended during Winter season:
Mittens or Gloves and Warm cap (Canadian Toque)
Passport and Visas
American citizens, including American-Canadian citizens, must carry proper identification and meet the basic requirements to enter Canada. You do not need a Canadian passport, a Canadian visa or an eTA to enter Canada if you are travelling with a valid U.S. passport.
Emergency Numbers
Just like in the United States, 911 is the number for police, ambulance and fire.

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